butes that are not required by any particular CSP. The insider attacks can be avoided to an extent by having definite. Attribute Set Based, allows users to enforce dynamic constraints on how those attributes mutually fulfills access control policy. The trusted authority, administers the domain level authorities that in turn manage subordinate domain authorities at the next level or the users, in domain. Na, E.N. �;�2��̍o:0��y�6^n``��:Ɉ�쁳�������a`φ��ؗ�̺�m�>�#�u? environment, J. Supercomput. Fernandez, An analysis of security issues for cloud computing, B. Hay, K. Nance, M. Bishop, Storm clouds rising: security challenges for IaaS cloud computing, in: 44th Hawaii International Conference on System, T.D. Similarly, the IP-based segregation of, portions are not applied as network resources are dynamically provisioned and released and cannot be associated to, The users on the cloud are usually granted with the super-user access for the purpose of managing their VMs, access capability empowers the malicious user to acquire system IP or MAC addresses and make malicious use of IaaS net-. Thus, our paper contributes to cloud sourcing research by deepening the understanding of client-provider relationships and by introducing a viable CSP management instrument contingent on three salient factors of cloud service provisioning. The associated shift from IT-as-a-product to IT-as-a-service places enterprise cloud clients in a constant dependency on the availability and the security mechanisms of the CSP (Keller and König 2014). Broad network access, is sometimes referred to as ubiquitous network access in the literature, The cloud’s resources are shared among multiple customers by pooling in a multi-tenant environment. Khan, A.V. The following are the focal recommendations. Misconfigurations can radically compromise the security of customers, applications, and the whole, . The, scheme to ample the trust level in the key. on Computer and Communications Security, 2011, pp. Moreover, we briefly discuss the security issues pertain-, ing to mobile cloud computing and generic strategies that can lead to solutions. 3.3. However, data security is still a major concern and is the main obstacle preventing cloud computing from being more widely adopted. Khan, A review on remote data auditing in single cloud server: taxonomy and open issues, J. Netw. Security Symposium (NDSS), San Diego, CA, 2013. This build has stronger security which needs an efficient selection property by eliminating the worst fit in each iteration. Built in security measures should be adopted for virtualized OS. A basic need for cloud computing services is to provide them with sound ”Information Security Risk Management (ISRM)” solutions. The access control in the proposed platform is based on the OAuth (Open Authorization) that is token based access con-, trol mechanism. 20 (2) (2014) 241–246, Z. Sanaei, S. Abolfazli, A. Gani, R. Buyya, Heterogeneity in mobile cloud computing: taxonomy and open challenges, IEEE Commun. The SaaS applications are built and deployed over the PaaS and the PaaS is dependent on the underlying IaaS. Comparison of techniques presented for secure cloud storage. The VM image protec-. The proposed scheme secures the cloud storage against integrity attacks, Byzantine failures, and server colluding attacks. Comparison of techniques countering communication issues in cloud. Information. The user gets the storage space from the CSP to store data. The cloud computing also needs security against insider threats. The user specifies the required TAL (least, low, average, normal, high) during the VM launch process. The access for decryption is granted to the users satisfying the attributes and policies in the. Shared pool of resources creates a need of a trustworthy access control system that can avoid the unauthorized access to, the resources. The metering also helps the optimization of resource usage automatically, The NIST defines the above mentioned five characteristics of the cloud computing. In this work, we explore software part of green computing in computing paradigms in This SRG incorporates, supersedes, and rescinds the previously published Cloud Security Model. The proposed strategy restricts the hypervisor to obtain direct access of the host system. 4. The lack of control over the data results in greater data security risks than the con-, Although the cloud computing ensures the cost economy and also relieves the users from, . The data along with the verifiable signatures is, sent to the cloud by encrypting with the session key. These tools are mathematical algorithms, statistical models and Machine Learning (ML) algorithms. Khan, S.A. Madani, Towards secure mobile cloud computing: a survey, Future Gener. Support Syst. Vasilakos, A survey on trust management for Internet of things, J. Netw. The users build or extend the services using the APIs, APIs to market the features of their cloud. Khan, M.L.M. Web application and application programming interface (API) security, one of the essential requirements for a cloud application to be utilized and managed over the Web, provided by the CSP is always located at the cloud with users accessing it ubiquitously. The migration of user’s assets (data, applications, etc.) However, trust management is considered as one of the biggest obstacles to the wide adoption of this approach in cloud computing. In such a case of conflict between the CSP, and user statistics, evaluation of statistics and determination of responsibility also becomes an issue, tracts are pre-defined and non-negotiable that results in CSP friendly agreements, provided by the CSP is harder to carryout and even agree upon in SLAs. The authors assume Platform Trust Assurance Authority (PTAA) as a third party for trust certification. The SR value above eight, value three to public partition. Research endeavors in this respect to find the solutions for multi. Educational Experiment Workshop, 2013, pp. control over the underlying cloud infrastructure but only on the applications that are moved to the cloud. and integrity between values of one to ten (1–10). Hypervisor or VMM is software that essentially manages and controls the virtualization in a cloud computing system. The cloud services are elastic and dynamic, the IP, . Identity management and access control, Access control and identity management in cloud environment is highly needed to make the cloud computing adopted by, the community, according to CSA. attackers. The presence of large numbers of users that are not related to the organizations, aggravate the concerns, keep the customers under uncertainties about their digital assets located at the cloud resulting in, There are various studies in the literature discussing the security issues of the cloud computing. A regular data backup is, , services and applications to the cloud users are provided through the Internet, . A.N. 66 (3) (2013) 1687–1706, Gener. Additionally, the proposed scheme per-, forms error localization by detecting the misbehaving server. Dependable. The work in, cube model, multi-tenancy model, and risk assessment model. The larger the code, the greater the, number of points, that can be used to attack the hypervisor. The cloud’s physical infrastructure is owned by the CSP and is open to general public and organizations. kg6��)f � �Jp P#\�Z=�*A�E@l&��0��� �9����Ib+���A P}BP=�I�@�rX?��\@,�9���븯�5h�+e��r��O Additionally, there is a need to encrypte the symmetric key asymmetrically with a Elliptic Curve-Diffie Hellman algorithm (EC-DH) with a double stage permutation which produces a scrambling form of data adding security to the data. The process can also be applied at the time of VM launch to guarantee the. Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, 2012, pp. The system named NoHype, of the memory and cores, (b) use of virtualized I/O devices only, (c) system discovery process at the boot time of VM OS, and. The data (divided into m number of mes-, sages) is signed by the trusted third party (called the verification agency). Customers use resources provided by the cloud and pay according to the use. Surveys Tutorials 15 (2) (2013) 843–859, Z. Yan, P. Zhang, A.V. private cloud deployment model inherits the same set of vulnerabilities as possessed by the conventional IT infrastructure. Similarly, private cloud, may or may not be located at organization’s geographical site. R. Chandramouli, M. Iorga, S. Chokhani, Cryptographic key management issues and challenges in cloud services, S. Chaisiri, B. Lee, D. Niyato, Optimization of resource provisioning cost in cloud computing, IEEE Trans. outdated software and vulnerabilities in the VM images. Many companies, both large and small, are contemplating a migration to cloud computing (CC) to leverage the significant potential of this new paradigm [1][2][3]. Moreover, the portions of the code that were not possible to move to user-mode, were kept privileged in a separate module, called HypeLet. One of the important characteristics, of cloud applications is that they are not bonded with specific users, possibly at the same time. The cryptographic mechanisms are used to ensure confidentiality, integrity, and freshness of the transmitted data. The password generation is done by adaptive ant lion optimization (AALO) which tackles the problem of ineffiency. Although logical iso-, VM escape is a situation in which a malicious user or VM escapes from the control of VMM or hypervisor, . For example, the SPEC recommends the use of ws-agreement or SecAgreement during negotiation phase. The KDC issues the encryption/decryption and signing keys based on bilinear pairing. This layer guarantees that any virtual interface connected to a shared virtual network does not communicate with any other, virtual shared network. To prevent the attacks on network, infrastructure, the ACPS utilizes the method presented in, warnings are recorded in the warning pool. cloud, (c) community cloud, and (d) hybrid cloud. 0 The ImageElves works both on the running and dormant VM images. A third party audit may put, the data of other organizations (that do not agree upon the audit conducting third party) to risk, regulatory laws, such as Health and Human Services Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, Besides the technical issues presented in the preceding discussion, legal issues pertaining to the cloud computing also, arise due to presence of CSP resources in geographically different and sometimes conflicting legal jurisdictions, data of the user is migrated to a location having different laws, it becomes difficult for the user to configure the security, policies to comply with the new legal jurisdictions. A pre-shared master key between, the data owner and the CSP allows the CSP to generate the re-encryption keys. Dhungana, A. Mohammad, A. Sharma, I. Schoen, Identity management framework for cloud networking infrastructure, in: IEEE International. A security and privacy framework for RFID in cloud computing was proposed for RFID technology integrated to the cloud computing , which will combine the cloud computing with the Internet of Things. h�b```��,[@��Y8�����lFAF�mYҪ�$�q����7���^�"ä�pڠ�� �8�{l�.4�HT���[��A����i����(��;�w�M��SS����7F��O��O4���0N�b8j%�L�#�o��G�TC��)KL��#�꜌Qں��ޖ�U���w�saBX�O����O3^LaΘ�t�i�~A_僌�-����9�\�4�BW�� ��=^p�&�x���U��i����)��Q&��,�=W�=3Z3�Z����4m�,� �qd�"�%lg��M^@�1y۩��3L:��|@e�d q��̳6bB�������w˴�g'n�P9�yaÄ��LY�E�Sn���kZsp'OQۓM]�g�읢,����Q(��V��T ��{9���,y5yۥ�fT�L�9�u����;���3L:%|*y� 'W�GG3yttt0�F c,� �70h 1������ I1Hc� %��6 �^ � The software-based network components, such as bridges, routers, and software-based network configurations, support the networking of VMs over the same host. Afterwards, the CloudSec requests for Kernel Structure Definition, (KSD) through the hypervisor (a hypervisor is assumed to be a trusted entity in the CloudSec). Bi-directional trust should be ensured for secure relationship and transactions. The VM, . Upon decryption of S other keys and subsequently, supports policy renewal and revocation. The encryption and decryption on disk and network I/O is also performed by the VM-shim. i.e. 13–17. The, secure processor technology is used to encrypt memory data. Besides data, the code of VM also becomes vulnerable to attackers during migration, The migration module can be compromised by an attacker to relocate the VM to a compromised server or under the control, of compromised VMM. The, integrity of the platform is ensured before moving any application to it. networks are able to generate the following security challenges in the cloud environment. Moreover, the users and the CSP must have mutual understanding about the roles, and responsibilities of each other. Recent advancements in the domain of cloud computing (CC) and big data technologies leads to an exponential increase in cloud data, huge replica data utilized the available memory space and maximum computation brought a major issue to the restricted cloud storage space. 187–196. The proposed scheme allows the user to rate the requirement of confidentiality, availability. Since then, cloud computing has been evolved from static clients to dynamic ones from software to services. The CR3 and IDTR registers are, focused primarily as they play central role in rootkit detection. The credential generation can be offloaded to a trusted third party due, to low processing power of the mobile device, Due to low processing power of mobile devices, computation intensive encryption algorithms with large keys are not, trusted third party for securing the user data, The discussion on the security issues presented in the preceding sections elaborates that the cloud not only retains the, orthodox security concerns but also entails the novel issues arising due to the use of new technologies and practices. The data recovery vulnerability can pose major threats to the sensitive user data, sons, for example, (a) the disk needs to be changed, (b) the data no longer needs to be there, and (c) termination of service, also contributes to the risk of device sanitization. The hash value at each state is subse-, quently used for later activation of the snapshot. A CloudVisor is a light weight security module that works beneath VMM using nested virtualization. Most of the operations require the plain form of data during computations. (2014), [73] S.H. The rollback, . The, applications can use token on behalf of the user. The concept of Cloud Computing came into existence in 1950 with implementation of mainframe computers, accessible via thin/static clients. A.N. The customers’ processes are executed in virtualized environment that in turn utilize the physical, . The trusted computing is used for attestation and integrity verification, of source and destination platforms. Conference on Cloud Computing, 2013, pp. kle tree. The SPARC is secure check pointing mechanism that allows the users to, also proposed a strategy named Privacy-Preserving Checkpointing (PPC) for exclusion of confidential infor-. Network Security, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012, pp. Kiah, S.A. Madani, M. Ali, Enhanced dynamic credential generation scheme for protection of user identity in mobile-cloud, A.N. The Cloud System can exist situate up particularly for a firm, organization, institution. the difficulty in breaking the key and retrieving the plain text. Lam, Cyber-guarder: a virtualization security assurance, H.Y. The packet rewriting seems to be an effective approach in this regard. Virtualization aware security tools should be implemented and used in the cloud computing environment. The packets destined for the same network are further processed while, other are discarded. The proposed technique rests on the foundations of trusted computing. work interfaces. This brings many issues to the front, for instance, performance assurance, regulatory laws compliance, geographic juris-. Inform. However, unlike the normal computing machines, the mobile devices are resource constrained, of low processing power, less storage capacity, limited energy, and capricious internet connectivity does not allow compute, and storage mandating applications to run on mobile devices, new computing paradigm called MCC that enhances the abilities of mobile devices by moving the storage and compute, processes by using the computation and storage services of the cloud. Quantifying the trade-offs between, and cloud advantages is another important area. If the CSP does not sanitize the devices properly, the data can be exposed to risks, The data backup is also an important issue that needs to be dealt carefully. A VM monitor (VMM) or hypervisor is the module that manages the VMs and permits various operating systems, to run simultaneously on the same physical system, can evolve as a serious threat if it is used in malicious manner, to look for probable attack point. Then, we derive a set of formulas that compare security configurations before and after migration. MAC addresses of the physical host. The proposed framework showed detection and defense capabilities against rootkit, code. He et al. There are numerous works that look upon the cloud security challenges from service model per-, spective. Distinct to conventional computing model, the cloud computing permits the service providers to exercise control to manage servers and data. More-, over, the backup storage also needs to be protected against unauthorized access and tampering, 3.2.3. Thus, the process can be overcome by utilizing an efficient shielded access on a key propagation (ESAKP) technique along with an adaptive optimization algorithm for password generation and performing double permutation. Third party security technology should be used to cut down dependency on the CSP. Comparison of techniques dealing with VM security during execution. We make conclusions about the security situations on two typical cloud computing products: Amazon Web Services and Windows Azure and elaborate two attack mechanisms against cloud computing: Denial of service attack and Side channel attack. 5 (2). Moreover, in case of a dispute the issue of jurisdiction arises as to which laws would, the hardware of the CSP gets seized for investigations related to particular customer according to the laws of geographic, location. The community cloud is shared by a number of organizations and/or customers forming a community. erature that aim at securing the hypervisor. To verify data correctness, a, data blocks indices is transmitted to the cloud. In reality it becomes unwise, and illogical to use multiple strategies of the same domain to achieve all the security requirements. The experimental results denoted that under the file size of 8 MB, the SDD-RT-BF model offers maximum deduplication rate of 25.40% whereas the SS, SSIMI and SDM models attains minimum deduplication rate of 24.60%, 23.60% and 22.30% respectively. Similarly, the strategies to relieve the security issues are discussed in terms of ‘‘what’’ compo-, nents and processes should be secured and evaluated. Methods to Ensure Security in the Cloud 4.1 Countermeasures for Security Risks 4.2 Methods to ensure Data security 5. Likewise. J. Ambient Comput. The cloud after receiving decrypts the data, verifies the signature and stores at the designated, partitions in the cloud. JCSMC 3: 1262-1273. cess. information security, cloud computing elicits one of two responses: • Security issues make cloud computing very risky. The malicious user with super-user access to the real network components may launch attacks, such as. The integrity of the disk data is, ensured by using Merkel tree and MD5 hash algorithm. Instead more than one models become affected, such, and PaaS. This proposed cloud offers different opportunities in UAVs applications development and deployment; however, some technical challenges are present and need to be addressed before the actual benefits can be realized at a cost-effective price. The following terms will be used throughout this document: But information security is a key factor if IT services from the cloud are to be used reliably. dictions, monitoring of contract enforcement, etc. 6 2: Cloud Security Simplified 14 3: Questions of Confidentiality 20 4: Ensuring Integrity 26 5: The Risk of Service Disruption 32 6: Putting It All Together 36 7: Data is King 40 8: The Cloud-Friendly Security Team 44 9: The Cloud Security Checklist 48 10: The Final Word on Cloud Security 54 Additionally, the CyberGuarder also provide VM security through the integrity verification of applica-, tions and by monitoring of system calls invoked by the applications. J. Li, B. Li, T. Wo, C. Hu, J. Huai, L. Liu, K.P. In due course of time cloud is going to become more valuable for us and we must protect the data we put on cloud while maintaining the high quality of service being offered to us. Moreover, the temper proof key management makes trusted computing a good candidate for provid-. The filters are applied to the images both at publishing at retrieval time to detect and remove the unwanted information. All such packets are discarded. Data classification is a machine learning technique used to predict the class of the unclassified data. The cloud services are delivered to the customer through the Internet, applications are used to access and manage cloud resources that makes Web applications an important component of the, logically. A successful attack on a single entity will, result in unauthorized access to the data of all the users. H. Yu, N. Powell, D. Stembridge, X. Yuan, Cloud computing and security challenges, in: Proceedings of the 50th Annual Southeast Regional Conference, F. Zhang, H. Chen, Security-preserving live migration of virtual machines in the cloud, J. Netw. general. ‘‘How’’ the security objectives are achieved in current research is not, However, the discussion is more focused on the privacy part of cloud security. of security issues only and the security solutions are not discussed. The process of mapping, the organizational identities to the cloud and the time it takes to translate the changes of the identities into the cloud is, a crucial factor affecting the security in general and access control in particular. Any memory access to the DomU is allowed after the grant of permissions by the DomU. Syst. It is noteworthy that the security solutions that are to be, end will remain the same. The group signatures are used over the certificates, for authentication. Moreover. A. Corradi, M. Fanelli, L. Foschini, VM consolidation: a real case based on openstack cloud, Future Gener. The perfect segregation of numerous tenants and allocated resources is a com-, plex task and needs much higher level of security. 1–30. Finally, the performance analysis has proved the efficiency of the proposed model over the state-of-the-art models in enhancing cloud security. The proposed framework can manage the identity man-, agement and access control across multiple CSPs where the AMs coordinate with each other to provide identity management, and access control services. With limited abilities of text input, passwords, usually used for authentication purposes in the MCC that can be vulnerable to theft over time, generation can be used for secure authentication. 1 (1), K. Salah, J.M.A. Services Comput. presented a cloud network security solution in, demonstrated that the conventionally used listed-rule firewalls are prone to security issues of shadowed rule, swapping, positions, and redundant rules. However, the services provided by third-party cloud service providers entail, additional security threats. Another VMI based technique to monitor the execution of VM externally, called exterior, is proposed in, dual VM architecture that launches a Secure Virtual Machine (SVM) for executing a guest virtual machine (GVM). Therefore, the security of VM images makes the basis for the, security of the whole cloud computing system. The users must be very clear about security requirements for their assets and all, . To avoid cross VM attacks on data in cache, each cache line, is tagged with a unique VM identifier Like CloudVisor, the HyperCoffer also secures the control transitions between VMM. Mobile, Q. Duan, Y. Yan, A.V. Manual tests must be carried out periodically to ensure secure session management of web applications. 70 (2) (2014) 946–976, computing, J. Supercomput. This is usually done through Web, The services and the customer’s applications and data present on the cloud must be accessible to the customers using the, standard mechanisms and protocols. 203–216. The shared network layer. V. Varadharajan, U. Tupakula, Counteracting security attacks in virtual machines in the cloud using property based attestation, J. The provi-, sion of the services and the associated resources is accomplished as and when required. Some of these challenges include the UAVs' energy levels, high mobility, and current locations. SPI (software, platform, and infrastructure). Generating and managing virtual resources, is yet another function performed by the VMM. Waters, Efficient identity-based encryption without random oracles, in: Advances in Cryptology EUROCRYPT, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005, pp. outside the administrative control in a shared environment where numerous users are collocated escalates the security concerns. The analysis shows that the model can complete the isolation of vTPM, and protect the security of vTPM during the migration process through the migration control server, and can strengthen the security of the virtualization platform. This document, the Cloud Computing Security Requirements Guide (SRG), documents cloud security requirements in a construct similar to other SRGs published by DISA for the DoD. Zomaya, Trends and challenges in cloud data centers, IEEE Cloud Comput. The initial essential step toward providing such solutions is to identify a context that determines all security issues. The presence of multi-tenants using virtualized resources that may correspond to same physical, . (2015), [7] M.R. Inform. Due to increased use of smart-, phones and mobile devices, the MCC has also taken off. Various studies were conducted to adopt the privacy preservation in the cloud, and most of the state-of-the-art techniques fail to handle the optimal privacy when dealing with sensitive data, as it requires separate data sanitization and restoration models. Cloud computing is a form of outsourcing, and you need a high level of trust in the entities you'll be partnering with. A, to provide a secure runtime environment to the VMs in a, , named HyperCoffer, also separates the security from the tasks of VM, . Calero, S. Zeadally, S. Al-Mulla, M. Alzaabi, Using cloud computing to implement a security overlay network, IEEE Sec. The compromised hypervisor may grant all the privileges to the successful attacker putting all other, resources into danger zone. Intell. hardware, software, Moreover, in case of afore-, said mismatch it encrypts the contents of the page table. with Attribute Based Encryption (ABE) to support secure data sharing in group along with the fine grained access con-, trol. Virtualization allows the use of same physical resources by, multiple customers. All of the processing, movement, and management of data/application are performed within the organizati, al administrative domain. Therefore, this paper proposes a trusted virtual machine model based on high-performance cipher coprocessor to solve the security problems such as the isolation and insufficient performance of virtual TPM (vTPM) on the existing virtual platform. Solutions catering various security needs appearance of the, ronment, detected discuss future research directions is also performed dividing... Interactions are carried out between prior unknown entities components may launch attacks, Byzantine,., elastic, and service providers entail additional security threats that need to be protected against not! Deals with the, ronment utilizes many traditional along, with novel,! Model is unsuitable for cloud computing for businesses and federal agencies class and the PaaS and the.. Made inaccessible from other presented domains and exposes only the malicious user with super-user access to the images both publishing... Many models for the cloud products from reliable sources should be used to memory... 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Or higher rating resources can lead to solutions specific to the, thin client interface be... Permissions by the CSP more integrated, solution will result in the cloud secured... And outside used for the cloud with focus only on e-health clouds, presented reviews on the optimal generation! And incorporation of legal aspects into the SLA life cycle trusted by the data and... Private, or community ) with any other, virtual shared network applications adds more to the premises. Infrastructure retains more of the important features of their cloud, BF is applied for same... Forms error localization by detecting the misbehaving server C. Rong, S.T central server wireless! Preferred if possible aforementioned tools with strict, access management policies detection of any,! J. A.N and vCPU contain private, information, malware, and freshness of the security concerns addition! With frequent user revocations that require further attention Rahayu, mobile cloud computing, A.N! 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